2023-03-14[2023-03-14 ~ ]
The universalization of Hydrogen Energy applications will make high-temperature resistance a topic for technological development
Newly Designed Fuel Vehicles and Hybrid Vehicles Face Similar High-Temperature Tests as Hydrogen Vehicles
Due to the many limitations of lithium vehicles, including too long charging time, too short battery life, and difficulty in popularizing chargers, in addition to accelerating the development of hydrogen vehicles, improving the performance of traditional fuel engines, and making them meet increasingly stringent exhaust emission standards, it will be in the common interests of car manufacturers and consumers to continue to innovate in the market. In particular, lower-emission hybrid vehicles are more in line with the best alternative to transition from fuel vehicles to hydrogen vehicles. However, the right engine needs to meet the principles of downsizing and high output, which will create new technical challenges.
Due to the downsizing of the new engine, the temperature and pressure must be pulled up to maintain the normal power level. To maintain the smooth operation of this mechanism, it is necessary to obtain appropriate temperature, exhaust emissions, and other data in this high-temperature environment to facilitate adjustment, prevent thermal deterioration of parts, protect the engine core, and improve fuel efficiency, to achieve efficient operation and reduce carbon emissions. Therefore, temperature sensors, exhaust gas sensors, nitrogen oxide sensors, and wide-range oxygen sensors are all necessary key components for fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles and need to improve performance to meet new specifications. Temperature sensors, for example, have been used in fuel vehicles for many years to detect exhaust gas temperature and prevent catalysts from overheating. New requirements are used to assist in optimizing engines to meet increasingly stringent emissions standards. Taking diesel applications as an example, such temperature sensors can be installed with four and two respectively in the exhaust pipe and exhaust gas recirculation system of diesel vehicles, and there are already products in the industry that can measure from low temperatures to 900°C.
Therefore, high-efficiency sensors with high-temperature resistance are not only suitable for hydrogen vehicles, but also have urgent demand for fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles, and have become key components that the industry strives to develop.
The Universalization of Hydrogen Energy Applications Will Make High-Temperature Resistance a Topic for Technological Development
For a long time, the main use of hydrogen is not used in fuel but is more common in the industry. For example, in electronics and metallurgical plants, hydrogen is used as a reducing agent: ammonia is a very important substance in the chemical industry, and ammonia production depends on the composition of hydrogen. Since the use of hydrogen is not universal, it is less valued in terms of application and safety, and naturally lacks experience. However, when hydrogen is used to replace petrochemical fuels for internal combustion engines, become a new source of energy for transportation, or even extend its use, there must be a comprehensive mechanism to ensure practicality and safety, so it will lead to more physical challenges.
Not only hydrogen vehicles but also small and medium-sized passenger aircraft, ships, trains, and rapid transit vehicles using hydrogen energy is already the future trend. Two giants of airliner engines, GEM and Rolls-Royce, have recognized the need for hydrogen fuel, and have developed and tested it. Several small hydrogen airliner manufacturers have already started test flights and plan to put them into commercial operation. In March 2021, several Norwegian companies joined forces to unveil their design for a zero-emission wind and hydrogen-powered vessel, which could become the world's first hydrogen carrier. The French-made all-hydrogen train, which began commissioning in Germany in the summer of 2022, connects ports and cities near Hamburg, Germany's main port city. These vehicles will use liquid hydrogen, and all need to use sensors and other components that can withstand extremely high temperatures and harsh environments, just like hydrogen vehicles.
This trend also applies to electrolyzers. At present, more than ninety percent of hydrogen uses natural gas combined with the water vapor recombination method, using a high-temperature catalyst environment to convert hydrogen, and the emission by-products contain carbon dioxide. The use of electrolyzed water to produce hydrogen will not have carbon emission problems, but the current low-temperature technology such as alkaline water electrolyzer and proton exchange membrane electrolyzer is inefficient, so the conversion efficiency close to 100% solid oxide electrolysis has become an important technology for development. However, its electrolyzer requires a high-temperature electrolyte of 500-850°C to produce hydrogen, which requires a fast and sensitive hydrogen sensor that can operate under a gas stream with a high degree of reduction and oxidation at a high gas temperature of 500-700°C.
- NGK Spark Plug CO. Ltd., Innovative Development of Hydrogen Leak Detection Sensors – Improving both Driving Performance and Security of Ultimate Eco Cars FCV
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